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A few decades ago the logical operations (computation) were operated manually by analog systems.  As the years passed by the technology advanced and new digital electronic machines managed to perform logical and arithmetic operations automatically. These digital electronic machines were called Computers and they were able to carry to execute complex sets of operations known as programs.

Nowadays Computers are “complete” systems that contain main software (operating system, hardware devices (hard disk, processor, motherboard, memory etc.), and peripheral equipment (mouse, keyboard, speakers, microphone etc.).

At the beginning computers were using transistors to operate complex calculations and programs. Transistors compared to vacuum tubes, required less power, were smaller and they released little heat. The next big invention was the integrated circuits. These were very small chips that managed to advance to MOS (metal-oxide-semiconductor) integrated circuits. As MOS integrated circuits advanced we came up with a really innovative invention: microprocessors. Microprocessor is a very small computer processor which contains a single integrated circuit and a small number of integrated circuits.

Nowadays computers are able to process multiple tasks and to distribute their work across several CPUs. This technique is mostly used on servers, mainframe computers and powerful machines. Apart of multiprocessor today computers are equipped with multi-cores (multiple CPUs on a single integrated circuit).

Memory cells are also important registers contained in a CPU that can be read and written much more rapidly than the main memory area. Memory cells and slots reduce significally the need of the access to main memory and greatly increase each computer’s speed. They contain 2 important variations: RAM (Random-Access Memory) and ROM (Read-Only Memory). ROM memory is preloaded with data and software that can never change, while RAM is read and written anytime the CPU commands it.

Software is that part of a computer system that consists of decoded information or computer instructions. It’s frequently divided into system software and operation software. When software is stored permanently and cannot be modified, similar as with memory’s ROM in an IBM PC compatible computer, it’s occasionally called” firmware”. Each computer consists also of an operating system like: Unix and BSD, Linux, Microsoft Windows, DOS, Macintosh operating systems and embedded and real-time operating systems.

One of the latest technologies is laptops. A laptop computer, or tablet computer is a very small, portable personal computer (PC) with an integrated keyboard and a screen. Laptops combine all the factors and capabilities of a desktop computer, including a display screen, small speakers, keyboard, hard disk, occasionally a blue-ray drive, touch pad, an operating system (Windows or Android), a processor and a memory into a single unit.

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